NEWS
Spinosad
  • Approved Drug Name
    Spinosad
  • CAS NO.
    168316-95-8
  • Quality Standard
    Enterprise Standard
  • Packaging
    10G/Bag, 20G/Bag, 10KG/Bucket
  • Storage Condition
    Shading,Sealing,Store at room temperature
  • Certification
    Ongoing registration

What is spinosad(casno.168316-95-8)?
spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is an insecticide based on chemical compounds found in the bacterial species Saccharopolyspora spinosa. The genus Saccharopolyspora was discovered in 1985 in isolates from crushed sugarcane which produce yellowish-pink aerial hyphae, with bead-like chains of spores enclosed in a characteristic hairy sheath. This genus is defined as aerobic, Gram-positive, nonacid-fast actinomycetes with fragmenting substrate mycelium. S. spinosa was isolated from soil collected inside a nonoperational sugar mill rum still in the Virgin Islands. spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is a mixture of chemical compounds in the spinosyn family that has a generalized structure consisting of a unique tetracyclic ring system attached to an amino sugar (D-forosamine) and a neutral sugar (tri-Ο-methyl-L-rhamnose). spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is relatively nonpolar and not easily dissolved in water.
spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is a novel mode-of-action insecticide derived from a family of natural products obtained by fermentation of S. spinosa. Spinosyns occur in over 20 natural forms, and over 200 synthetic forms (spinosoids) have been produced in the lab. spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) contains a mix of two spinosoids, spinosyn A, the major component, and spinosyn D (the minor component), in a roughly 17:3 ratio.
spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is a natural substance made by a soil bacterium that can be toxic to insects. It is a mixture of two chemicals called spinosyn A and spinosyn D. It is used to control a wide variety of pests. These include thrips, leafminers, spider mites, mosquitoes, ants, fruit flies and others. spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) has been registered for use in pesticides by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1997.
What are some products that contain spinosad(casno.168316-95-8)?
Currently, spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is found in over 80 registered pesticide products. Many of these are used on agricultural crops and ornamental plants. Others are used in and around buildings, in aquatic settings, and as seed treatments. These products are commonly sprays, dusts, granules, and pellets. Some of these products are approved for use in organic agriculture.
spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is also found in some drugs regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. These products are used to control head lice on people and fleas on dogs and cats.
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How does spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) work?
spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) affects the nervous system of insects that eat or touch it. It causes their muscles to flex uncontrollably. This leads to paralysis and ultimately their death, typically within 1-2 days.
How might I be exposed to spinosad(casno.168316-95-8)?
People are most commonly exposed to very low levels of spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) through their diet. Exposure can also occur if you breathe it in or get it on your skin or eyes. For example, this can occur while applying sprays or dusts during windy conditions. This can also happen after using a product if you don’t wash your hands before eating or smoking.
What are some signs and symptoms from a brief exposure to spinosad(casno.168316-95-8)?
spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is low in toxicity to people and other mammals. However, if it gets on your skin or in your eyes it can cause irritation and redness. In one study, 28 dogs were fed low to moderate doses of spinosad(casno.168316-95-8). One dog that received a moderate dose vomited. No effects related to spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) were observed in the other dogs.
What happens to spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) when it enters the body?
When eaten, spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is readily absorbed. Once inside it moves to many areas of the body and is broken down. The majority leaves the body in feces or urine within 1-2 days. spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is absorbed poorly through skin contact.
Is spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) likely to contribute to the development of cancer?
No. In multiple studies, animals were fed low to moderate amounts of spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) in their diet for 1.5 to 2 years. No increased incidence of cancer was observed. Moreover, spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) has not been found to alter or damage genes. As a result of these experiments, the EPA has classified spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) as not likely to cause cancer.
Has anyone studied non-cancer effects from long-term exposure to spinosad(casno.168316-95-8)?
In one study, dogs were fed low doses of spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) for one year. Effects to gland and immune cells and increases in some proteins and fats in the blood were observed.
Scientists have also tested whether spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) causes developmental or reproductive effects in rats and rabbits. In these studies, animals were fed low to moderate doses daily throughout their lives or during their pregnancies. Effects were only observed at the highest doses. These included lower body weights and effects to some organs. Abnormal vaginal bleeding, more difficult labors, and abortions were also observed in some pregnant animals at the highest doses tested. No direct effects to their offspring occurred at any dose level.
The EPA limits the levels of pesticides, including spinosad(casno.168316-95-8), allowed on food. Due to this, it is unlikely that individuals would be exposed to spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) at levels this high through their diet.
Are children more sensitive to spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) than adults?
Children may be especially sensitive to pesticides compared to adults. However, there are currently no data showing that children have increased sensitivity specifically to spinosad(casno.168316-95-8).
What happens to spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) in the environment?
spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is broken down rapidly by sunlight. In the presence of sunlight, half-lives on leaves are 2 to 16 days and less than one day in water. When applied to leaves, some spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) can be absorbed. However, it does not readily spread from leaves to the rest of the plant. In the absence of sunlight, spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) breaks down very slowly in water. Half-lives of more than 30 days to 259 days have been reported. However, it binds rapidly to sediment. The halflife in sediment, where no oxygen is available, ranges from 161 to 250 days.
spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) also sticks to soil and has a very low potential to move through soil towards ground water. In field studies, no break down products of spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) were found below a soil depth of two feet. In the top layers of soil, spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is rapidly broken down by microbes. Soil half-lives of 9 to 17 days have been reported. After it is applied, spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is not likely to become airborne.
Can spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) affect birds, fish, or other wildlife?
spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is practically non-toxic to moderately toxic to fish depending on the species. It is slightly to moderately toxic to aquatic invertebrates. However, spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is very highly toxic to eastern oysters. spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is practically non-toxic to slightly toxic to birds, based on studies with bobwhite quail and mallard ducks. It is moderately toxic to earthworms. spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is very highly toxic to bees. However, evidence suggests that spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) has little or no effect on honey bees and other beneficial insects after sprays have dried.
spinosad(casno.168316-95-8): Mode of action:
spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) is highly active, by both contact and ingestion, in numerous insect species. Its overall protective effect varies with insect species and life stage. It affects certain species only in the adult stage, but can affect other species at more than one life stage. The species subject to very high rates of mortality as larvae, but not as adults, may gradually be controlled through sustained larval mortality. The mode of action of spinosoid insecticides is by a neural mechanism. The spinosyns and spinosoids have a novel mode of action, primarily targeting binding sites on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of the insect nervous system that are distinct from those at which other insecticides have their activity. Spinosoid binding leads to disruption of acetylcholine neurotransmission. spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) so far has proven not to cause cross-resistance to any other known insecticide.
Use of spinosad(casno.168316-95-8):
spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) has been used around the world for the control of a variety of insect pests, including Lepidoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera, Coleoptera, Orthoptera, and Hymenoptera, and many others. It was first registered as a pesticide in the United States for use on crops in 1997. Its labeled use rate is set at 1 ppm (1 mg a.i./kg of grain) and its maximum residue limit (MRL) or tolerance is set at 1.5 ppm. spinosad(casno.168316-95-8)’s widespread commercial launch was deferred, awaiting final MRL or tolerance approvals in a few remaining grain-importing countries. It is considered a natural product, thus is approved for use in organic agriculture by numerous nations. Two other uses for spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) are for pets and humans. spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) has recently been used in oral preparations to treat C. felis, the cat flea, in canines and felines; the optimal dose set for canines is reported to be 30 mg/kg.
Trade names include Comfortis and Trifexis (which also includes milbemycin oxime) (both brands treat adult fleas on pets; the latter also prevents heartworm disease), and Natroba (for human head lice). It is commonly used to kill thrips.
Safety and ecotoxicology of spinosad(casno.168316-95-8):
spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) has high efficacy, a broad insect pest spectrum, low mammalian toxicity, and a good environmental profile, a unique feature of the insecticide compared to others currently used for the protection of grain products. It is regarded as natural product-based, and approved for use in organic agriculture by numerous national and international certifications. spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) residues are highly stable on grains stored in bins, with protection ranging from 6 months to 2 years.
Ecotoxicology parameters have been reported for spinosad(casno.168316-95-8), and are:
In rat (Rattus norvegicus Bergenhout, 1769), acute oral: LD50>5000 mg/kg (nontoxic)
In rat (R. norvegicus), acute dermal: LD50>2000 mg/kg (nontoxic)
In California quail (Callipepla californica Shaw, 1798), oral toxicity: LD50>2000 mg/kg (nontoxic)
In duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica Linnaeus, 1758), dietary toxicity: LC50>5000 mg/kg (nontoxic)
In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792), LC50-96h=30.0 mg/l (slightly toxic)
In honeybee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758), LD50=0.0025 mg/bee (highly toxic for 30 days, lethal to egg stage, lethal to larval stage, and causes subsequent queen death; it appears to kill sperm, therefore queens are rendered useless and are soon replaced if the hive survives). Even dried residues have been observed to be lethal to honeybee colonies, whereby honeybees may take up residues from dried sprays in dew which may form on sprayed fruit, foliage, etc.
Of 12 hives which were so affected in western Massachusetts in the first week of June, 2015, only two were considered strong when heading into winter, whereas four hives collapsed outright. None of the affected hives was expected to winter over successfully.
An unblinded study performed on groups of 10 rats per dose level run using direct oral doses of commercially prepared insectide found some effects at higher doses, but confirmed that spinosad(casno.168316-95-8) had much less negative effects than malathion. Chronic exposure studies failed to induce tumor formation in rats and mice; mice given up to 51 mg/kg/day for 18 months resulted in no tumor formation. Similarly, administration of 25 mg/kg/day to rats for 24 months did not result in tumor formation.